Helminthiases are a group of parasitic diseases that develop as a result of the penetration of various types of parasitic worms into the body. The disease is not limited in terms of gender and age. Keep in mind that helminthiasis is more frequently diagnosed in children. This is due to the fact that children are less hygienic, eat unwashed food and often play in the fresh air (sand, garden, etc. ).
Helminths are a group of representatives of the lower worm that can penetrate the human body and grow freely in it, thus provoking the development of parasitic diseases. All representatives of this group can be conditionally divided into 3 groups:
- ringworm; pita
Depending on the mode of transmission, all human helminthiases are divided into:
- biohelminthiasis.In this case, the parasites are carried by animals;
- is contagious.Infections occur from sick people;
- geohelminthiasis.This type of helminthiasis is spread through the soil. This is due to the fact that certain parts of the parasitic life cycle occur right in the soil.
The larval and developing parasitic forms of larvae are most dangerous to the human body, as they are free to move around the body, infecting vital organs. Adults cannot move freely and therefore have a more stable position.
A large number of helminths "prefer" to carry parasites in the gastrointestinal tract. Keep in mind that various species are localized in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract: cream worms - in the lower part of the small intestine, ringworm - in the upper part, and so on. Also, based on location, helminths are divided into tissues and luminals.
It should be noted that parasites can infect not only the digestive tract, but also the lungs, bile ducts and the gallbladder itself. Throughout their lives, they release various toxic substances that poison the human body. Importantly, if you suspect the presence of parasites in the body, immediately see a doctor and start treating the disease to prevent the development of dangerous complications.
Characteristics of helminthiasis appear first from peripheral blood. If you do a clinical analysis, you can see an increase in the amount of eosinophils (especially in the acute stage of the disease). It should be noted that eosinophilia is often combined with severe leukocytosis.
Other signs of helminths include:
- itching in the anus;
- unstable stools are possible - replacement of constipation and diarrhea;
- teeth grind during sleep;
- morning nausea. Often occurs in a person while brushing teeth;
- weight loss during diet does not change;
- hyperthermia, accompanied by joint and muscle pain;
- sunbathing in the morning;
- someone is always hungry;
- the appearance of rash elements on the skin (sometimes on the eyelids);
- The skin on the fingers may peel off.
The helminthiasis clinic is divided into acute and chronic stages. The first symptoms of helminthiasis appear a month after the parasite penetrates into the body. The acute stage of the pathological process begins. Someone experiences the following symptoms:
- upper airways become inflamed;
- rash elements appear on the skin;
- swollen face. These symptoms are especially noticeable in children;
- young children sometimes develop tonsillitis and lymphadenitis.
Pathological processes can be complicated:
- appearance of infiltrates in the lungs;
The above symptoms do not appear simultaneously with certain types of helminthiasis. Usually in the clinic of this disease, only two or three symptoms dominate. Such a clinical picture in patients is observed for 7 days, after which the disease becomes chronic. The pathological signs vary depending on the type of pathogen that is parasitic in the human body:
- echinococcosis. Allergic reactions appear. Allergy symptoms are at their peak. In the most severe clinical situations, anaphylactic shock may occur
- filariasis and strongyloidiasis. The rash on the skin gets worse and the face swells.
Manifestations of helminthiasis also depend heavily on the location of the parasite. A large number of parasitic species in the gastrointestinal tract, which cause indigestion, weight loss, nausea, vomiting and intoxication syndrome.
Experts refer to the most severe helminthiasis:
Helminthiases shown affect almost all vital organs and systems, therefore, even with timely treatment, the prognosis is often unfavorable.
Because there are many helminthiases, diagnostics includes many research methods. The most informative and frequently used are the following:
- feces analysis. In it, doctors have the opportunity to detect worm eggs, as well as undigested food fragments, which indicate a disturbance in the function of the gastrointestinal tract;
- blood in microfilaria;
- to detect ringworm and cream worms in the human body, perform macroscopic examination;
- microscopic examination;
- bile research;
- coproovoscopy. Diagnosis of helminthiasis using this method allows you to determine the intensity of helminthic invasion;
- examination of duodenal contents;
- if a doctor suspects that a person has trichinosis, a biopsy of muscle tissue is prescribed;
- blood tests for the presence of specific antibodies to some helminthiases.
The main goal of treating this disease is to expel parasites from the patient's body, as well as restore normal function of the gastrointestinal tract. The treatment plan is prescribed only by a qualified specialist after a thorough diagnosis, evaluation of test results. Treatment can be done both in the hospital and at home.
The basis of helminthiasis treatment is the use of certain anthelmintic drugs.
They can only be taken as prescribed by the attending physician and according to the prescribed dose. In the acute phase of the disease, one dose of the drug is sufficient to get rid of helminths. But often the treatment is carried out according to a specific scheme.
During treatment, it is important to adhere to these principles:
- strict adherence to personal hygiene rules;
- diet therapy;
- all finished products must be processed;
- where the patient is treated, it is necessary to disinfect regularly.
Treatment of helminthiasis in children is done only in a stationary state, so that the doctor can always monitor the patient's condition and, if necessary, adjust the therapy. Keep in mind that the disease in children is more severe, so that the course of treatment can last a long time.
Prevention of helminthiasis in children and adults should be done throughout life. Since helminths live on the ground, and can also be spread through contact, you should observe as much hygiene as possible - wash your hands, use personal hygiene items, etc. It is also important to process fruits and vegetables carefully before eating.
For prophylactic purposes, it is important to identify people who are infected with worms in time. For this purpose, surveys of certain categories of adults are conducted periodically (especially workers in the food sector, medical sector, etc. ).